Effect of raw materials on properties of piezoelectric ceramics
Views: 65 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-07-15 Origin: Site
Introduction to Piezoelectric Ceramic Technology
The nature of the raw material will have a decisive influence on the final properties of the piezoelectric ceramic. The biggest difference between piezoelectric ceramics and traditional ceramics is that the purity, fineness, particle size and distribution, reactivity, crystal form, availability and cost of raw materials must be fully considered and controlled.
To a large extent, raw materials can determine the performance parameters of piezoelectric ceramic components, and have an important impact on the smooth progress of the process. Therefore, the performance of the element materials used must be understood, and the selection of raw materials must conform to the principle of economical rationality.
The various raw materials used in piezoelectric ceramics are generally various metal oxides, and sometimes various titanates, zirconates, stannates, ferrites and carbonates are used. At present, the various raw materials used in the production of piezoelectric ceramics have strong locality, and the quality of raw materials often varies greatly with the origin and batch number.
Seriously affect the stability of production quality. Therefore, it is of great practical significance to grasp the influence of raw material quality on product performance, and then to pre-control effectively in production, to ensure product quality.
In general, the raw materials used in piezoelectric ceramic materials can be divided into two categories: chemical raw materials and mineral raw materials. All raw materials provided by chemical plants are called chemical raw materials, such as BaCO3. SrCO3. CaCO3. MgCO3. Pb3O4. TiO2. ZrO2. Nb2O5. La2O3 and so on.
The raw materials that are directly mined and only processed properly are called mineral raw materials. Commonly used mineral raw materials are clay, feldspar, quartz, talc, magnesite, marble, dolomite, etc. General daily-use porcelain, common electrical porcelain and some wireless ceramics are almost all made of mineral raw materials, while wireless ceramics such as piezoelectric and strong dielectric capacitors are almost completely made of chemical raw materials.
The purity, fineness and activity of raw materials are three important indicators to measure the quality of raw materials. Regardless of the manufacture of barium titanate, lead titanate, or the manufacture of piezoelectric ceramic components such as binary lead zirconate titanate and ternary lead magnesium niobate, titanium dioxide, zirconium dioxide, lead oxide or lead tetroxide, etc. The main raw materials are generally in the range of 10~60%.
Factors affecting the quality of piezoelectric ceramics
Purity of raw materials
The requirement for purity is moderation. High-purity raw materials, expensive, high sintering temperature and narrow temperature range. Raw materials with lower purity, some impurities can play the role of ore calcification and fluxing, but make the sintering temperature lower and the temperature range wider. Too low-purity raw materials have many impurities and should not be used.
The content of impurities in the raw material
The allowable amount of impurities in piezoelectric ceramic materials is mainly determined by the type of impurities, the type of material and the proportion of raw materials in the formula.
Impurities are divided into harmful impurities and favorable impurities. Harmful impurities refer to impurities that have a great influence on the insulation and dielectric properties of materials, especially heterovalent ions. The favorable impurity is the impurity that has the same ion price as the material A and B, and the radius is close, which can form a replacement solid solution.
In the PZT formula, the large proportions of raw materials Pb3O4, ZrO2, TiO2 account for about 60%, 20% and 104% by weight, respectively. If there are many impurities, the total amount of impurities introduced will also be large. Therefore, the total content of impurities is required not to exceed 2%, that is, the purity is required to be above 98%.
Stability and activity of raw materials
Refers to the stability and activity of the raw material itself before the solid-phase reaction is carried out.
The particle size of the raw material
The raw material particles are required to be less than 0.2um, and the trace additives should be finer. In this way, the contact area of the mixture can be increased, which is beneficial to the interdiffusion reaction, so that the composition is uniform and the performance is good. In addition, the internal stress of the ceramic can be reduced, and the mechanical strength can be increased.
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